Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria. They are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, and mouth microbiota in mammals. Some Bifidobacterium strains are considered as important probiotics and used in the food industry.
Lactobacilli are non-spore-forming, gram-positive rods. They are an essential part of the normal human bacterial flora commonly found in the mouth, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and female genitourinary tract. Lactobacillus is the most common probiotic found in food such as yogurt, and it is diverse in its application to maintain human well-being.
Lactococcus is a genus of gram-positive, catalase-negative, nonmotile lactic acid cocci that are found singly, in pairs, or in chains. They belong to the genus Streptococcus Group N1. These organisms are commonly used in the dairy industry in the manufacture of fermented dairy products such as cheeses.
Streptococcus is a genus of nonmotile, microaerophilic, gram-positive spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae. They tend to form pairs or chains that may appear bent or twisted. Although Streptococci can be potent pathogens, some species are commercially important for the production of cheese and yogurt.
The genus Bacillus is a heterogeneous collection of gram-positive or gram-variable spore-forming, aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria. For their wide range of physiologic characteristics and ability to produce a multitude of secretory proteins, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, Bacillus species are used in many industrial processes.
Saccharomyces is a genus of fungi that includes many species of yeasts. It is a common symbiotic yeast that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and the vaginal mucosa and can only infect the host under specific conditions. Many members of Saccharomyces are considered very important in food production.
Leuconostoc is a genus of gram-positive bacteria. They are generally ovoid cocci that often form chains. The history of human exposure and consumption has led to the conclusion that Leuconostoc is a microorganism generally regarded as safe. Leuconostoc strains have economic importance, related to numerous positive aspects