Dental caries is a multifactorial disease. Its pathogenesis involves the microbiota, the host, its immune mechanisms, and the diet. Even though all these factors have to intervene for dental caries to develop, microbiological factors are still the leading cause of this disease. The oral microbiome is an essential part of the human microbiome. The oral cavity contains several significantly different niches with distinct microbial communities. A wide range of microorganisms inhabits the human oral cavity, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and protozoa. Also, the imbalance between the saprophytic and pathogenic flora of the oral cavity in a susceptible host can result in periodontal disease. Debridement treatment of this disease can be surgical or non-surgical, and in some cases, systemic administration of antimicrobials is required. However, new alternatives for periodontal health maintenance are needed due to the bacterial resistance caused by the prescription of these drugs.
Several new methods have been developed based on the relationship between dental caries, periodontal disease, and oral microbiome. They can modulate the microbiome and maintain or re-establish a healthy oral ecosystem.
As a type of bacteriotherapy, probiotics provide a decrease in CFU counts of cariogenic pathogens. The mechanism of probiotics in the oral cavity is not clearly established. They are associated with decreased CFU counts of cariogenic pathogens and the inhibition of periodontal pathogens. They also modulate the inflammatory response (humoral and cellular) and produce substances such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins (antimicrobial agents produced by lactic acid bacteria, whose action provides them probiotic effect).
Creative Enzymes provides high-quality oral health formula for academic and industrial use. Please contact us for product details.