The microbiota plays a fundamental role in the overall development and defenses of human beings. Vaginal secretions contain numerous microorganisms and the host provides them nutrients for their growth and development. Disruptions in vaginal associated with the microbiomes lead to the changes in the vaginal environment, which enhance the risk of acquiring diseases including sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis (BV), fungal infections, preterm birth, etc.
BV is one of the most common forms of vaginal dysbiosis and often disrupts the balance between vaginal microbial and bacterial communities. The bacteria include strains of Lactobacillus, which are the primary source of lactic acid in the vagina, and vaginal acidity is important in providing broad protection against undesirable microbes. In fact, keeping vaginal acidic reinforces the predominance of Lactobacilli that supports a balanced vaginal microbial ecosystem.
Over the decades, antimicrobials have been the primary therapeutic intervention for treating BV and urogenital infections. Unfortunately, it’s often ineffective, particularly for BV, and there’s a high rate of recurrence.
Probiotics have been used to replace traditional therapies. The main mechanism of probiotics in the treatment of BV is to reconstruct the vaginal microbial environment. Common probiotics include L. reuteri RC-14, L.fermentum, L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus GR-1, L. acidophilus, and L. crispatus. Clinical trials have shown that these probiotics can play a positive role in restoring vaginal microecology and treating BV. Probiotics also avoid the abuse of antibiotics, which can cause drug-resistant bacteria to appear. Probiotics have no side effects and have great value in this application. In obstetrics and gynecology, Lactobacilli species are mainly used to restore the physiologic vaginal microbiota in order to treat bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and prevent preterm birth.
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